Photography: Sergio Larrain/Lewis Hine

“And one by one the nights between our separated cities are joined to the night that unites us.” –  Pablo Neruda

I just saw that Sergio Larrain, the great Chilean photographer, died last month.

“Sergio Larrain began photographing the famous Chilean port in the 1950s but it was not until 1963 that he spent more time there, this time, in the company of the poet Pablo Neruda. The text and photographs in Valparaiso were published in the journal Du in 1966. But it had to wait until 1991 before it was published as a book, which has since gained a cult following. Not only did Sergio Larrain ceaselessly climb the narrow streets, the stairs, and the hills of this city frozen in time, but he also shed light on an entire bohemian lifestyle in the neighborhoods nearby the port, which then counted some one hundred brothels and cabarets. The result is a series of pictures that has become an essential reference in the work of this photographer who escapes categorization.”–Magnum Photos

What nonsense/You are/What a crazy/Insane Port./
Your mounded head/Disheveled/You never finish combing your hair/Life has always surprised you

- Pablo Neruda

***

Not long ago, I posted about some of the wonderful photos to be found on the Daily Mail website, often from the Library of Congress website. Here are some more.

Working as an investigative photographer for the National Child Labor Committee, sociologist Lewis Hine documented working and living conditions of children in the United States between 1908 and 1924. In a series of poignant photographs, Mr Hine documented children who were sent to work soon after they could walk, and were paid based on how many buckets of oysters they shucked daily. The advent of industrialisation at the turn of the 20th century meant an exploitation of child labour, as factory workers often saw children as a cheaper, more manageable alternative to older workers.

Bayard Rustin at 100

Remember Bayard Rustin

This month is the centenary of the birth of the great Bayard Rustin. I particularly liked Eric Lee’s appreciation, but some others I liked were: by Richard Kahlenberg, Matt Meyer, Michael Long, Bennett Singer,

John D’Emilio‘s piece at HuffPo is nice, but exemplifies one of the terrible problems with the left today. D’Emilio writes:

Rustin’s list of achievements is long. So why don’t most Americans know about him? Rustin had three strikes against him. In the 1930s he had been a Communist, and in J. Edgar Hoover‘s America, that meant you were always a danger to the nation. In the 1940s he had been what some might call a “draft dodger.” He served two years in federal prison rather than fight in World War II, a stance that did not go down well with American Legions and other patriots during the Cold War. And, through all these decades, an era I describe to my students as “the worst time to be queer,” he was a gay man who refused to play it straight. At a time when every state had sodomy laws, when the federal government banned the employment of all homosexuals, and when police across America felt authorized to walk into gay bars and arrest everyone who was there, Rustin’s sexuality brought him no end of trouble.

All that is true of course. But it is interesting (and a great cause for celebration) that his gayness now seems to count for him rather than against him in the mainstream and liberal worlds. And while his 1930s Communism still counts against him in the viciously anti-Communist American mainstream, it counts for him in the liberal HuffPo world; his later anti-Communism has to be airbrushed out by the liberals who like him, and is one of the reasons that so many liberals do not keep his memory alive.

Here’s the official page.  Here’s Rustin as singer. More links here. Also great stuff at City Lights.

Mug shot of Bayard Rustin.

Published in: on March 27, 2012 at 7:46 pm  Comments (2)  
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Music Mondays: Grândola, Vila Morena

On every corner, a friend
In every face, equality
Grândola, swarthy town
Land of brotherhood

Zeca Afonso: Grândola, Vila Morena

Today’s song is from History is Made at Night. Here’s a short extract from a great post.

n April 1974, left leaning military officers overthrew the Portuguese dictatorship and ended its colonial wars in Africa. For the next two years Portugal was in turmoil, with workers taking over workplaces and many hoping to push the revolution further. The radio stations were one of the key sites of struggle, in particular Rádio Renascença.

The Revolution Started with a Song by John Hoyland (Street Life, November 1 1975): 

‘3 am, April 25 1974. By prior arrangement with the rebel Armed Forces Movement (AFM), a DJ on Lisbon’s Radio Renascenca plays ‘Grandola, Vila Morena’, a popular song of the day whose possible subversive meaning had escaped the censor’s ears. The song is a signal for a military uprising that, with scarcely any opposition, overthrows the Caetano Government, and brings to an end 50 years of fascism in Portugal. The next day, the people pour into the streets, and give the soldiers red carnations. The soldiers stick the flowers in their guns…’

Previous: The music of the carnation revolution, The Carnation revolution, Anarchist fado.

From the archive of struggle, no.70

Some new material at Entdinglichung:

*From Gruppe Internationaler SozialistInnen (GIS): Aghis Stinas: Das Massaker an den internationalistischen Kommunisten in Griechenland (Dezember 1944) (1977)

*From Cedar Lounge RevolutionClass War, Mai 1994 [This is the Irish sibling paper of the London anarchist tabloid]

*From irishanarchisthistoryIrish anarchism in the 1880s (1997/2008) [Two articles by Fintan Lane: Practical Anarchists We was published by History Ireland in March/April 2008 (vol.16, no.2), and The origins of modern Irish socialism, 1881-1896 in Red & Black Revolution (no.3) in 1997.]

Marceau Pivert

*From R.a.D.A.R.Marceau PivertRévolution d’abord ! (1935)

*From Libcom:

- Baumanskaya Group Proletarian Opposition VKP(b): New Forgery (1928, ein Untergrund-Flugblatt der “Demokratischen Zentralisten [Decists]” [Source used for this translation was Stephen Shenfield's upload: Collection of documents on the Decists (p. 71-73). This relates to one of the early anti-Stalinist opposition groups]
Ross WinnTexts from Firebrand (1895) [Winn was a Southern anarchist born in the 1870s)
– Peter Principle: What is anarcho-syndicalism?: libertarian reformism, vanguardism or revolutionary unionism? (1997) [From Black Flag, on a polemic within the International Workers Association]

I missed this instalment at Entdinglichung, which includes the following:

* Martha A. Ackelsberg: Free Women of Spain (1991, archive.org, also at Libcom)

* Juan Andrade: “El reñidero español. Relato de un testigo de los conflictos sociales y políticos de la guerra civil española” (Franz Borkenau, Ruedo ibérico, París, 1971) (1972, Fundación Andreu Nin)

* Cindy Coignard: Militants et sympathisants étrangers du P.O.U.M. (2010, La Bataille Socialiste)

* Ricardo Flores MagonLand & Liberty (191?, archive.org)

* Emile Pouget/Emile Pataud: Syndicalism and the co-operative commonwealth (1913, LibCom)

And did I miss this instalment too, with these things:

* Zeitungen: auf MIA einige weitere Ausgaben des The Toiler (1921/22) sowie die Jahrgänge 1935 und 1942 des Militant, auf R.a.D.A.R. weitere Ausgaben der Jeune Garde, der Clarté (Februar 1927Januar 1927Mai 1925), der Cahiers Rouge (Januar 1938, mit Beilage) sowie der Lutte de Classes vom31. Dezember 1942, sowie auf Materialien zur Analyse von Opposition die Wahrheit – Kommunistische Arbeiter-Korrespondenz desKommunistischen Bundes Bremen (KBB, der Laden von Ralf Fücks) 1972/73.

* L’Humanité: Gustav Landauer, héros de la pensée et de l’action prolétariennes (1923, Espace contre Ciment)

* Sojourner Truth Organization: Workplace Papers (1980, LibCom)

Published in: on March 20, 2012 at 1:52 pm  Comments (2)  

Bloggerati

From Harry Barnes:

Karl Marx reviews Downton Abbey:


“His family history, the history of his house etc – all this individualises the estate for him and makes it literally his house, personalises it. Similarly those working on the estate have not the position of day-labourers; but they are in part themselves his property, as are serfs; and in part they are bound to him by ties of respect, allegiance and duty….It is necessary that this appearance be abolished.”

From “Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844″.

Karl Marx will next be reviewing the programme “Who Do You Think Your Are?”.

From Paul Stott:

Of all the anti-fascists to make a stand, perhaps the bravest are those who did so in Nazi Germany.

Jean Julich was one of the Edelweiss Pirates, teenagers who rebelled against Nazi society, and physically fought the Hitler Youth, at great cost to themselves. Jean died in October last year aged 82, but I have only just come across this excellent obituary from the Telegraph of 7 February 2012. It is a tremendous testament to the ability to resist.

And:

The quote below is from today’s Telegraph Review, where amongst the book reviews Dan Jones considers Paul Preston’s work on the Spanish Civil War and its fascist butchery, The Spanish Holocaust.

Jones writes:

“Ernest Hemingway, George Orwell and the rest sent back graphic dispatches from the front line, and their work has left the historical impression that Europe’s first open war between fascists and the combined forces of communism, socialism and social democracy was well covered and understood. Yet away from the eyes of the war reporters, argues Paul Preston, there was another Spanish Civil War, in which thousands of civilans were systematically murdered, and their deaths subsequently obscured”.

Whilst accepting his latter point, the former is a re-writing of history. In this analysis, all those Anarchists in Barcelona and much of southern Spain must have been a figment of the imagination. I do hope that Preston’s book is considerably better than Jones’ summary above!

From the Fat Man:

But where Anarchist practice really triumphs is in the course of everyday life among common people who would not be able to endure their dreadful struggle for existence if they did not engage in spontaneous mutual aid, putting aside differences and conflicts of interest. When one of them falls ill, other poor people take in his children, feeding them, sharing the meagre sustenance of the week, seeking to make ends meet by doubling their hours of work. A sort of communism is instituted among neighbors through lending, in which there is a constant coming and going of household implements and provisions. Poverty unites the unfortunate in a fraternal league. Together they are hungry; together they are satisfied …

A miniscule society that is anarchistic and truly humane is thus created, even though everything in the larger world seems to be in league to prevent its being born – laws, regulations, bad examples, and public immorality.

Elisée Reclus (1894)

Papadopoulos, who spent 17 years abroad with MSF and returned to her native Greece three years ago, sees hope among the rubble. “What keeps me going is an increasingly strong sense of solidarity among the Greek people,” she said. “Donations to MSF, for example, have of course gone down with the crisis, but donors keep giving, they remain active.”

She sees a refreshing new phenomenon of self-organisation and social action. “In the past year of this crisis I have seen really encouraging, really exciting things happening – people are seeing the power of organising themselves. We have to support them.”

Jon Henley, this from the latest in a series of illuminating reports on the social impact of the crisis in Greece.

Here is just one example of why Greece is still a great place and why you should go there and spend your money, despite all the negativity in the press. But it is also a reminder that, whilst the financial markets are settling into the warm glow of complacency with the conclusion of the latest deal, the crisis is far from over and that none of the major economic contradictions have been addressed. Even though EU leaders think that they have successfully quarantined Greece (a policy that is the antithesis of solidarity), Portugal, Italy, Spain and Ireland are waiting in the shadows and even the Netherlands can’t meet the terms of the extraordinarily restrictive fiscal rules that they so assiduously helped to impose. There is no resolution, events are merely pausing for breath.

From the Shirazites:

Orwellia addendum

One more to add to these.

The end not yet in sight: Orwell’s ‘Road to Wigan Pier’ 75 years on

March 8th marked the 75th anniversary of the publication of George Orwell’s 1937 landmark The Road to Wigan Pier, a work of extreme candor on pre-war poverty in England. It is a cherished snapshot of the North in the 1930s, and The Observer, among others, have been nostalgic   in printing pictures from the area for the commemoration of Orwell’s journey.

As an Orwell scholar, my interest in Wigan Pier is largely in the role it played in the road to Animal Farm and 1984. But the anniversary of the publication comes at a pertinent time – during what is the worst economic hardship since just after the Second World War. It is now being asked if Wigan Pier can be used to address present anxieties. Would Orwell think his original argument still stands for current poverty in the North of England and beyond? [READ THE REST]

Published in: on March 15, 2012 at 6:11 pm  Comments (1)  
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Orwellia

Orwell on the 99%

From Gene at HP:

An entry in George Orwell’s War-Time Diary for 3 June 1940:

From a letter from Lady Oxford to the Daily Telegraph, on the subject of war economies:

“Since most London houses are deserted there is little entertaining… in any case, most people have to part with their cooks and live in hotels.”

Apparently nothing will ever teach these people that the other 99% of the population exists.

Lady Oxford was Margot Asquith, widow of Herbert Henry Asquith, prime minister from 1908-1916.

The Scotsman: I’d no idea who George Orwell was, says doctor who treated him

HE was one of Britain’s leading political writers, famous for novels including Animal Farm and Burmese Days. But to a young Scottish junior doctor unaware of his identity, the quiet middle-aged man was just another patient. Within weeks, Dr James “Jimmy” Williamson found himself at the forefront of medical treatment in Scotland helping administer a revolutionary new “miracle drug” to George Orwell.

The author used his political and literary connections and royalties from Animal Farm to obtain the drug from the US. In 1948, Orwell, then 44, became the first person in Scotland to be treated with streptomycin, which was unlicensed in Britain and too expensive for the post-war government to ship in.

The writer, who had been living in a remote farmhouse on the island of Jura to help try to improve his health, was admitted to Hairmyres Hospital, near Glasgow, under his real name Eric Blair, for treatment for infectious chronic tuberculosis.

Professor Williamson, 91, from Edinburgh, recalled the novelist sitting in bed working on Nineteen Eighty-Four. Orwell jumbled the numbers of the year 1948 to produce one of the most famous titles of the 20th century, introducing words such as “Big Brother” and “doublespeak” to international audiences. “He’d been in the hospital for about two weeks for investigation of his tuberculosis before I arrived. I’d never heard of him. Then one of the nurses told me he was a well-known writer.

“I remember he was in a double room and he would be sitting up in bed with a cigarette in the corner of his mouth typing away most of the time. He smoked almost all the time, was sort of addicted to tobacco and rolled his own cigarettes. Lots of people in hospitals smoked in those days, even the doctors. The noise from the typing didn’t seem to cause any bother with the other patient and they got on very well together.”

Professor Williamson remembers Orwell bravely undergoing painful treatment. “We would chat about his condition and he would do what you wanted him to do. But he was highly strung and we had to give him treatment which involved air being injected into his abdominal cavity. This upset him a lot but he didn’t complain.”

However, more drastic remedies were required and in February 1948 Orwell wrote to his publisher David Astor saying his specialist had told him “it would speed recovery if one had some streptomycin. He suggested that you, with your American connections, might arrange to buy it and I could pay you.” Astor contacted Minister of Health Aneurin Bevan, who had been Orwell’s editor at the Tribune, checking this would not cause a political row.

But after a few weeks Orwell developed a severe allergic reaction to the drug and treatment stopped. Orwell donated the remaining supply to the hospital. Orwell’s health deteriorate further and he died in January 1950 – six months after the publication of Nineteen Eighty-Four.

Iain Macintyre, a former vice-president of the Royal College of Surgeons in Edinburgh and co-author of Scottish Medicine – An Illustrated History, which includes details of Orwell’s stay at the hospital, said: “There is an irony that Orwell, who wrote Animal Farm, was in a position to be able to take medical advice to go to Jura and then to obtain streptomycin.

“But when it’s your life on the line you try everything you can to save it.”

David Streitfeld: Amazon, Up in Flames

“If you want a picture of the future, imagine a boot stamping on a human face — forever,” George Orwell wrote in “Nineteen Eighty-Four.” In “Animal Farm,” he concluded that revolutions are inevitably betrayed by their leaders. His novel “Burmese Days” ends with the hero killing himself because he is unfit to live in this sour world. He shoots his dog too.

As a rule, modern civilization disappointed Orwell when it did not actually sicken him. But in at least one respect he was way too optimistic. Bookselling, he wrote in Fortnightly in November 1936, “is a humane trade which is not capable of being vulgarized beyond a certain point. The combines can never squeeze the small independent bookseller out of existence as they have squeezed the grocer and the milkman.”

Jump forward three-quarters of a century, and a certain Seattle-based combine is being accused of exactly that. All sorts of merchants, but particularly booksellers, were infuriated by Amazon’s effort before the holidays to use shops on Main Street and in malls as showrooms for people to check out items before ordering them more cheaply online. The retailer’s refusal to collect sales tax is a persistent grievance. Independent booksellers have even been forced into the novel position of hoping that their one-time foe, Barnes & Noble, survives so that it can serve as a bulwark against Amazon. Publishers, if anything, are more fearful than booksellers.

Now take a look at the cover of Bloomberg Businessweek two weeks ago. It shows a book in flames with the headline, “Amazon wants to burn the book business.” What was remarkable was not just the overt Nazi iconography but the fact that it did not cause any particular uproar. In the struggle over the future of intellectual commerce in the United States, apparently even evocations of Joseph Goebbels and the Brown Shirts are considered fair game.

From Amazon’s point of view, the cover is incorrect even if you disregard any Nazi connotations. What would be the use to Amazon of a charred hulk? It does not want to destroy the book business, but simply to reinvent it — or, as its opponents would have it, seize control of it. (Amazon declined to comment.) [READ THE REST]

Deccan Herald: George Orwell’s birthplace lies in tatters, encroached

The house where Orwell was born on June 25, 1903 and spent his infant days till his parents migrated to England next year, vividly tell the story of neglect as thick vegetation has mushroomed in the six-acre premises.

The walls surrounding the house have been covered with piles of loose bricks, many of which have been taken away by the locals for their use. The vast open field in the walled structure where some dilapidate godowns (used during the British rule for storage of opium cultivated at the instruction of the colonial rulers) stand in dilapidated condition and the entire area is filled with garbage even as some unauthorised huts have sprung up.

All that is left to the memory of the legendary British author is his bust made of white stone and the foundation stone outside the gate of his house which get a symbolic facelift to mark his birth and death anniversaries.

The Rural Works Department (RWD) executive engineer Harendra Pratap said that Orwell’s house has been lying in a dilapidated state and the premises was encroached by local people. “We are unable to construct a proposed second gate at the structure due to encroachment by the locals,” he told PTI.

The Motihari Nagar Parishad Prakash Asthana also said that Orwell’s house has been lying in bad shape, but claimed that the renovation of the house will begin soon upon release of funds by the state government. There is definitely a project underway to renovate the house and give it a facelift as larger plan to development the British litterateurs house as a tourist destination, he said.

Bihar Art, Culture and Youth Affairs Minister Sukhda Pandey said that her department had released Rs 32.70 lakh to the district administration for beautification of Orwell’s memorial structure and construction of road, drainage and boundary wall sometime back and utilisation report sought. She said that a reminder will be issued soon to the district administration in this regard. On the encroachment in the British author’s house and the premises being used for residence by school teacher, Pandey said that she has also received complaints in this regard on which she has sought a report from the district magistrate. Maintaining that Orwell’s house was a treasure of Bihar, the Art, Culture and Youth Affairs Minister said that all steps will be taken for protection and development of the historical and monumental structure which, she said, will be developed as a tourist destination.

Mainichi Japan: Teahouses in Myanmar a reflection of George Orwell’s ‘good is bad’

I went into many tea shops while I was in Myanmar. Each time, I looked around to see if any suspicious person was listening to my conversations with my tour guide and other people I got acquainted with there.

Teashops in this country, where freedom of speech has been restricted for many years, are places for not only relaxation but also exchanges of information, and I heard that secret police officers and tipsters were deployed to these places.

Several years ago, a U.S. female journalist published a report on Myanmar titled, “Secret Histories,” and its Japanese translation published by the Shobunsha publishing house drew attention from many Japanese readers. The writer followed in the footsteps of British novelist George Orwell (1903-50), who worked as a police officer in Myanmar for five years when the country was under Britain’s colonial rule. She identified Myanmar as a country with national monitoring under dictatorship that Orwell depicted in his futuristic novel “1984.”

The author wrote that she felt as if she had stepped into the world depicted by “1984.” She undoubtedly viewed teashops as the core of Myanmar’s monitoring network. Her book is subtitled, “Finding George Orwell in a Burmese Teashop.”

However, Japanese experts agree that Myanmar is a loose society. “Although authorities regulate speech, ordinary people don’t feel the situation confining. It’s far from the world of ‘1984,’” says Toshihiro Kudo of the Institute of Developing Economies. I felt the same way.

A monitoring device called a “telescreen” has been extended throughout the society depicted in “1984.”

Sophia University professor Kei Nemoto says, “Britain, which has installed hundreds of surveillance cameras, is the democratic version of a country with national monitoring depicted by Orwell.”[...]

[T]here is no doubt that many difficult problems that Myanmar currently faces derive from Britain’s colonial rule. At the time, Britain gave important posts to ethnic Karens to repress ethnic Burmese. In other words, Britain ruled Myanmar by preventing different ethnic groups from joining hands in rising in revolt against it. The Burmese restored control over Myanmar when a democratic administration was formed when the country won independence. However, Karens and other ethnic minorities went into an armed struggle with the government to win separation and independence.[...]

After Myanmar won independence and withdrew from the British Commonwealth, the socialist administration led by General Ne Win concluded that regulations requiring cars to travel on the left side of the road, a legacy of British rule, were inconvenient and dangerous, and switched to a right side of the road system, according to the guide. Some people say Myanmar did this as a result of fortune-telling, but it is widely viewed that it did so out of antipathy against Britain.

Pro-democracy movement leader Aung San Suu Kyi wrote in her column in the Mainichi Shimbun in June 1996 that the State Law and Order Restoration Council, the military regime’s top decision-making body at the time, sounds as if its name had been given by Orwell, and sarcastically praised clauses in a law called, “Decree No. 1, 1990,” as great sentences like those by Orwell.

Suu Kyi studied in Britain and married a British national. It is natural that the leadership of the military regime, who had been eliminating the legacies of British rule, had antipathy against Suu Kyi who loudly called for Western-style democracy and talked about Orwell. [...]

Britain, Myanmar’s military regime and the Burmese dynasty did almost the same things. In the words of George Orwell, “Good is bad, Bad is good.” I think this is true.

From the archive of struggle no.69: Emma Goldman, anti-fascism, etc

Most important link today is an apparently previously unpublished text by Emma Goldman on “The political Soviet grinding machine“, written in Barcelona in 1936.

I’ve only recently noticed the newish website Anti-Fascist Archive, which mainly has material from the history of British militant anti-fascism. Here’s a recent weekly update to give you an idea of what’s there:

Most relevant to this blog, I guess, is the pre-war stuff, so here’s a taster.

img074 img075 img076 img077img072 img073

The Two-Gun Mutualist site has been updating its translations. Among the updated are: “Nihilism” by Voline (ca.1929); Joseph Déjacque,Authority—Dictatorship (Down with the Bosses!) and Exchange; Henri Rochefort, letter on Louise Michel; Han Ryner, from “The Congress of Poets” and “The Revolt of the Machines“.

There’s lost more from the radical archive at Entdinglichungmainly in French but also including Rare texts by the Situationist International 1966-1972 and Nestor Machno’s The Anarchist Revolution (192?).

Below the fold, what’s new at the Marxist Internet Archive: (more…)

Misc

Image from Lists of Note, my new favourite website.

Women of the left: The International Socialist Group have an interesting series of this name. I was especially taken by this piece on Juana Belen by Mhairi McAlpine. Oh, and happy birthday Rosa Luxemburg!

Bad socialists: Jonathan Freedland has a fascinating article on eugenics, the skeleton in the left’s closet, specifically a deformity of Fabian socialists and their ilk, such as the Left Book Club’s Harold Laski, George Bernard Shaw, the Manchester Guardian and William Beveridge.

Radical Glasgow: On the weaver’s strike of 1787.

Culture: Alan Massie on Joseph Roth and Stefan Zweig.

Occupy: A letter from Straughton Lynd.

Zionism, anti-Zionism, antisemitism: Rudolph Slansky and the Livingstone formulation. The fall of Communism and the rise of antisemitism.

Partisans: This is not new, but I just saw it at the Jews and Bosniaks website: on Bosnia in WWII:

[...]Once the kingdom of Yugoslavia was conquered by Nazi forces, Serbia became a Nazi puppet state led by the régime of General Milan Nedić, while Bosnia became annexed by Ustasha controlled Nazi puppet state of Croatia. Soon thereafter, the Croatian anti-fascist leader Josip Broz Tito organized the first multi-ethnic resistance group in Europe, the Partisans, who fought against the Nazis and their collaborators – Chetniks and Ustashas. According to Tito, “Jews played a leading role in the founding of his resistance movement.” The leading figure among them was Moshe Pijade (Moša Pijade).

Majority of Serbs in the area took up arms and joined the Nazi-collaborationist Chetnik forces led by General Draza Mihailovich. Though initially fighting against the Nazis, the Chetniks signed numerous documents of collaboratioin with the Nazis. Assisted by Germans and Nedić’s regime, Mihailovich’s Chetniks embarked on a campaign to exterminate Bosnian Muslims, Jews, and anti-fascist communists (Partisans). [...] As part of his genocidal policies, General Mihailovic issued the so called “Instructions” (“Instrukcije”) to his commanders on December 20, 1941 to fight for “the creation of Greater Yugoslavia, and within it Greater Serbia, ethnically clean within the borders of Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Srem, Banat, and Backa” and to ‘cleanse’ (destroy) “all national minorities [including Jews] and anti-state elements from state territory“.[...]

All the major military offensives by the antifascist movement of Yugoslavia against Nazis and their local supporters were conducted in Bosnia-Herzegovina and its peoples, particularly Bosnian Muslims, bore the brunt of fighting. Majority of Bosnian Muslims joined anti-fascist forces in World War II, and a small number joined short-lived SS Handzar (Handschar) division. [...] [READ THE REST]

Published in: on March 6, 2012 at 2:48 pm  Leave a Comment  
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