Today’s feature archive is YIVO. Founded in 1925 in Vilna as the Yiddish Scientific Institute, YIVO was the national research institute and archive of Yiddishland. Salvaged from the ruins of European Jewry in 1940, YIVO was re-founded in New York, where it now as an excellent archival collection, and some cool digital collections.
Here are some of the extraordinary materials you will find. Click on the objects to see them in their contexts.
Bek, a Yiddish translation of The Call of the Wild by Jack London, published by the Kultur Lige (Jewish Workers Cultural Association) in Kiev, 1925.
Union of Jewish Writers and Journalists of Warsaw membership card of Isaac Bashevis Singer (1904–1991)
May Day demonstration jointly organized by the Jewish Socialist Bund and Poalei-Zion Left (Warsaw, 1936).
The Bundist song, Di Shvue (“The Oath”)… penned in 1902 by S. An-ski (Shlomo Zanvil Rapoport), the Russian Jewish writer. This Yiddish song, whose melody source also is unknown, exhorts Jews to unite, and to commit themselves body and soul to the defeat of the Russian Tsar and of capitalism… [The partisan song Zog nit keyn mol ]
Arbeter-froyen (Working Women) (965kb)
Text: David Edelshtat (1866-1892)
Sung by Adrienne Cooper
Edelshtadt’s Arbeter-froyen addresses women in its protest of the hardships of factory work. The song sounds a call to oppressed women workers to join the labor movement in its fight for justice and equality. Published in the New York newspaper Freie Arbeiter Stimme (Free Voice of Labor) in 1891, it was also sung by striking workers in Russia and Poland.Yugnt-himen (Youth Anthem) (766kb)
Text: Szmerke Kaczerginski (1908-1954)
Music: Basya Rubin (n.d.)~
h Children’s Chorus, The New Yiddish Chorale, and the Workmen’s Circle Chorus
Vilna poet and partisan Szmerke Kaczerginski wrote this stirring march song for the youth movement in the Vilna ghetto. Many of the young people who took part in the ghetto’s active resistance movement later also became combatants in the partisan units that fought the Nazis in the forests.
Members of the Tsukunft Self-Defense Group carry the Socialist flag on May Day, Warsaw. 1930s.
Chicago 1912 – Outdoor portrait of the Jewish Socialist Self-Education Club — Includes Abraham Reisen
“Jewish Woman‚ Vote for the Women’s Slate, Slate Number 3.”
From the archive of struggle no.38:
* Chris Harman: extracts from “Party and Class” (1969), “The Prophet and the Proletariat” (1994), “Spontaneity, Strategy, Politics” (2004) – makes the interesting case that Harman’s political legacy is the libertarian streak in the IS/SWP tradition, the element that is worth valuing and preserving. Chris Harman died last week. RIP.
World Socialist Website:
International Communist League:
*Socialist Workers League: “War Is Here—What Now?” (September 1939)
The rest are via Entdinglichung, with some annotation.
* Leon Trotsky: The Bolsheviki and world peace (1918). [For an authoritative text version of this, as The War and the International, go to MIA. The introduction is by Lincoln Steffens, a muckracking journalist associated with the Progressive Party who became a Communist fellow traveller after a visit to the Soviet Union in 1919 with the Swede Karl Kilbom. I believe he later embraced Mussolini. This book, published by a mainstream American publisher, shows the extent to which Trotsky was considered a great hero of the revolution world-wide; he was the object of cult-like reverence, a figure of great romance in the West.]
* Bertram Wolfe: Marx and America (1934). [Wolfe was a founder-member of the CPUSA and active in the Comintern. He was close to the majority faction of the CPUSA around CE Ruthenberg and Jay Lovestone, who fought against the Foster-Cannon faction, a leftist minority. By 1934, however, he was an oppositionist, part of Lovestone’s Independent Communist Labor League in America and the Communist Party Opposition internationally. Wolfe was the Lovestonite’s chief theorist, and argued for “American exceptionalism”. In this erudite pamphlet, he makes the argument by drawing on Marx’s scattered writings about the US, showing that America posed a special case for the communist movement.]
* International Communist Opposition (ICO): International Class Struggle, Spring 1937. [The ICO, often known as the “Right” Opposition, initially had a pretty robust organisation. Zinoviev, a “Rightist”, had been the chair of the Comintern from its founding until 1926, but Nikolai Bukharin, the chair until the end of the Second Period in 1928, was the real leader after Lenin’s death. Bukharin was the intellectual hero of most of the ICO leadership, and it was Bukharin’s fall from grace under Stalin that prompted the break of the ICO from the mainstream. ICO leaders were therefore already well networked internationally, and able to hit the ground running organisationally, in contrast to the much slower moving “Left” Opposition. However, the ICO tended to lack a mass base in the labour movement, although there were some exceptions to this (the Lovestone-Wolfe group had a strong base in the Yiddish sections of the ILGWU; Steffens’ erstwhile friend Kilbom’s Communist Party of Sweden was pretty big; in Spain the BOC (one of the POUM’s predecessors, was important). This, along with the right-ward drift of many of their key thinkers, was probably the main reason they atrophied by WWII.
This is the ICO’s American journal, vol. 1, no.3, and it includes a fraternally critical letter to the POUM from the bureau of the ICO; a piece on the CIO by George F Miles, the Lovestonites’ labour expert; “D. Swift” on proletarian novels, particularly contemptuous of James T Farrell; an account of the German CPO’s underground existence under Hitler; a critical account of Leon Blum’s Popular Front in France; and a cruel attack on Jean Juares as a prototype of the Popular Front policy. No. 1 and No. 2 are also on-line at archive.org, but I haven’t looked at them yet.]
* Leon Trotsky on labor party: stenographic report of discussion held in 1938 with leaders of the Socialist Workers Party (1968). [A long introduction by Fred Meuhler and Tim Wohlforth draws on Engels and Lenin to argue for an American Labor Party. Then a transcript of Trotsky’s conversation in Mexico with James Cannon, Max Shachtman and Vincent Dunne. By 1938, the Right Opposition were in decline globally, and the Left Opposition was on the rise. However, it is interesting that the American SWP, which was led precisely by James Cannon, Lovestone and Wolfe’s rival in the early CPUSA, had come around to a version of the “American exceptionalism” thesis, and were now calling for an American Labor Party.]
* Andreu Nin: Carta al Partido socialista (1937)
* Protestation devant les libertaires du présent et du futur sur les capitulations de 1937 (1937)
* Henri Chazé: Pannekoek et les Conseils ouvriers (1962)
* Henri Chazé: La Révolution et la Guerre d’Espagne (1970)
* Geroge Shaw/The Hobgoblin: Chris Pallis dit Maurice Brinton (1923–2005) (2005)
* Louis Bouët: Impressions d’un délégué (1936)
* Pierre Stambul: Retour sur le sionisme et la question juive (2005)
** Reg Groves: Chartism And The Present Day: The Illusion Of Reformism (1929)
** Reg Groves: The Class Leadership Of Chartism (1929)
** Reg Groves: The Brighton Labour Party Conference (1929)
** Reg Groves: The Up-To-Date Fabian: A History of Socialism (1931)
* The KAPD’s report on the third congress of the Communist International (1921)
* Program of the AAUD (1920)
* Henriette Roland-Holst: The Communist Left and the resolutions of the second congress of the Communist International (1921)
* Resolution of the conference of the Abstentionist Communist Fraction of the Italian Socialist Party (1920)
* Aufheben: 1914-2001: A people’s history of Argentina (2003)
* Kamunist Kranti: Questions for alternatives (2003)
* Sean Matgamna: How the dockers forged solidarity, and how they lost it (1995)
* Walter Benjamin: Kapitalismus als Religion – Fragment (1921)
* Rosa Luxemburg: Arrêt et progrès du marxisme (1903)
* Korsch/Mattick/Pannekoek/Rühle/Wagner: La contre-révolution bureaucratique (1973)
* Lewis Mumford: Mythos der Maschine – Kultur, Technik und Macht (1978, Auszug)
* Iring Fetscher: Aus dem Geist der Gerechtigkeit – Wiedergelesen: Gustav Landauers „Aufruf zum Sozialismus“ von 1911 (1977)
* Georges Henein: Prestige de la terreur (1945)
* Hans Manfred Bock: Bibliographischer Versuch zur Geschichte des Anarchismus und Anarcho-Syndikalismus in Deutschland (1973)