Today in 1906: Birth of Yitzhak Ben Aharon

1906: Birthdate of Yitzhak Ben Aharon.

When Aharon died in May of 2006, two months short of his hundredth birthday, he was the last living icon of the left-wing of the Israeli Labor Party. He was born in the Bukovina region of Romania, in what was then the Austro-Hungarian Empire. As a teenager he was already active in the Zionist youth organizations, HeHalutz and HaShomer Hatzair. After studying economics and political science in Berlin, he immigrated to Palestine in 1928 and in 1932 joined Kibbutz Givat Haim. Despite living in the kibbutz for the rest of his life, for the next four decades, Ben Aharon’s main sphere of influence was the organized labor movement in Tel Aviv. He served as secretary of the Tel-Aviv workers council in the mid 1930s and in 1938 was appointed secretary of Mapai, the original forerunner of the Labor party headed by David Ben-Gurion. In 1935, he spent a few months in Nazi Germany as an emissary of the HeHalutz leadership until being arrested and deported by the Gestapo. He was to be a prisoner of the Nazis again when a year after joining the British Army in 1940, he was captured in Greece and spent the next four years in a German POW camp. Upon arriving back in Palestine, Ben Aharon joined Siah Bet (Faction B), the group of Mapai activists that eventually split with the party leadership over accusations of forsaking the battle for class equality. After independence he was one of the founders of Mapam, which after the first elections became Mapai’s main opposition to the left. Ben Aharon who was a Knesset member from 1949 onwards, represented Mapam in the Histadrut trade union council and was one of the bitter opponents of Ben Gurion’s decision to dismantle the Palmach, what had been the main fighting force of the Yishuv in the War of Independence. Ben Gurion feared that the Palmach would become an independent militia, outside the IDF command. Mapam members saw the move as politically motivated since many of the Palmach’s commanders were party members. Another bone of contention with Mapai was the government’s effort to position the new state with the American sphere of influence while Mapam saw their spiritual home in Moscow. Ben Aharon was one of the signatories of the party’s letter of condolence to “the Soviet Peoples” on the death of Stalin. In 1954, Ben Aharon’s group split with Mapam and ran in the elections as Ahdut HaAvoda – Poalei Zion and later joined the Mapai coalition. In 1965 the two parties merged into what would eventually become the Israeli Labor Party. In 1959, Ben Aharon was appointed transportation minister but resigned after two and a half years blaming the government for not upholding “workers’ principles.” The peak of his public career was as Secretary General of the Histadrut from 1969-1973. Until then, the Histadrut had been seen mainly as the Mapai organized labor movement. Ben Aharon was the first secretary general to fight against his party and its government on what he saw as workers’ rights. He widened the use of strikes in industrial disputes and tried to force private businesses to conform to Histadrut practices. Much of what he did brought him in to open conflict with his party’s leadership who preferred a more “pragmatic” version of socialism. Ben Aharon refused to realize that his old-fashioned unvarnished socialism was a thing of the past and left active politics in 1977. His parting shot, delivered on the night of the Likud’s historic elections victory, bringing Mapai’s hegemony to an end was “if this is the will of the people, then the people should be replaced.” Over the last three decades, as the other members of his generation died out, he gained status as a guru to those on the left of Labor and social-revolutionaries. The leaders of his party, Peres, Yitzhak Rabin, Ehud Barak, preferred to minimize contact with him, seeing him as relic of a past standing between Labor and an estranged electorate. Instead he became a rallying-point for young radicals, wanting to relive through him an age when the Israeli proletariat were in power. Some of these young followers even took the trouble to pore over his writings collected in a dozen books. The Labor government awarded him the Israel Prize for his life work in 1995. Ben Aharon could at least take comfort in the final months of his life that a politician in his mould, a Histadrut Secretary General opposed to the other kind of ‘General’ to be find in the Labor leadership, an unabashed socialist, who put the interests of the workers at the top of his agenda, had finally taken over his old party.

Published in: on July 17, 2010 at 11:34 am  Comments (2)  

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  1. That was interesting.

    The Kibbutz leaders tended to be more pro-Stalin, than anywhere in the world. Even after the revelations, many stayed pro-Stalin. The Soviets were the ones who stopped Hitler.

    In Tel Aviv last year in the mayoral elections, the Communist Party got 35% of the vote.


  2. That’s interesting Renegade. I didn’t know that. There is a fascinating piece in the new Jewish Quarterly on the history of the kibbutz movement, by a Meretz writer, and I just started reading James Horrox’s book on anarchism in the kibbutz movement.

    On Communism in Israel, I just this minute read this by Seyla Benhabib:
    On a balmy and humid Saturday night, June 5th, we left our apartment on Kikar Masarik Square in Tel-Aviv and walked down to Yitzhak Rabin Square, only 5 minutes away. Recalling our youthful days at similar anti-war and peace marches, we eyed the crowd anxiously.

    We soon realized that we were joining the crowd, whose size would eventually grow to 6,000 and sponsored by the Israeli Peace Movement (Shalom Ahshav), at the gathering spot of the Israeli Communist Party (Hadash): I noticed many young Arabs carrying the hammer and sickle, along with girls, Israeli or Palestinian, with their khaffiyas, chanting in Hebrew and Arabic as a distinguished looking elderly Arab gentleman addressed that part of the crowd.

    As the sea of red flags surges around us, I suppressed a tear: Such a sight is hardly visible in any European capital. I recalled all those Jewish communist militants of Europe who gave their lives for an ideal that was hollowed out by history. “Wie eine Trane im Ozean,” I mused –like a tear in the Ocean– recalling that beautiful novel of Mannes Sperber, documenting the decimation of a generation of militants by Stalin and party purges even before the gas chambers reached them. But here now before me were their children and grandchildren, not in Paris, Berlin, Vienna, Budapest and Moscow, but in Tel-Aviv.

    At that point, we noticed another group, again with many youthful members that has entered the square. It is the Latin American Socialist Youth Alliance, chanting into their megaphones in Hebrew – “El Pueblo unido, no maz sera venciro.” We joined them, and started marching as the sounds of English, Hebrew, and Spanish wafted over heads like so many delicious smells of an eclectic cuisine.

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